Slave owners feared possible revolts if conditions were lightened. With the pirates installed in Port Royal , which became the largest city in the Caribbean, the Spanish would be deterred from attacking. Reynolds Jamaica Mines, Ltd. Jago de la Vega, around at present-day St. After the British took over rule of Jamaica, the Jews decided the best defense against Spain's regaining control was to encourage making the colony a base for Caribbean pirates. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, Sevilla , which was established in and abandoned around because it was deemed unhealthy. Other gardens were the Cinchona Plantation , founded in , and the Hope Botanical Gardens founded in It became a staple in island diets.
Jamaica attained full independence by leaving the federation in Under treaties of and , the British agreed to stop trying to round them up in exchange for their leaving the colonial settlements alone, but serving if needed for military actions. Reynolds Jamaica Mines, Ltd. Other gardens were the Cinchona Plantation , founded in , and the Hope Botanical Gardens founded in Following a series of rebellions on the island and changing attitudes in Great Britain, the British government formally abolished slavery by an act, beginning in , with full emancipation from chattel slavery declared in Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land. Members then restricted to European-Jamaicans claimed that the slaves were content and objected to Parliament's interference in island affairs. There was also a decline in tourism, which was important to the economy. Primarily working as merchants and traders, the Jewish community was forced to live a clandestine life, calling themselves "Portugals". Slave owners feared possible revolts if conditions were lightened. The population in was ,, of whom 15, were white, 5, free black; 40, 'coloured' or free people of color mixed race ; and , were slaves. One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, Sevilla , which was established in and abandoned around because it was deemed unhealthy. These included the Castleton Botanical Gardens , developed in to replace the Bath Botanical Gardens created in which was subject to flooding. Jago de la Vega, around at present-day St. Economic deterioration continued into the mids, exacerbated by a number of factors. During its first years of British rule, Jamaica became one of the world's leading sugar -exporting, slave-dependent colonies, producing more than 77, tons of sugar annually between and They banned the use of whips in the field and flogging of women; informed planters that slaves were to be allowed religious instruction, and required a free day during each week when slaves could sell their produce,  prohibiting Sunday markets to enable slaves to attend church. The first and third largest alumina producers, Alpart and Alcoa , closed, and there was a significant reduction in production by the second-largest producer, Alcan. Workers recruited from India began arriving in , Chinese workers in After the British took over rule of Jamaica, the Jews decided the best defense against Spain's regaining control was to encourage making the colony a base for Caribbean pirates. The Irish in Jamaica also formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. Due to rising foreign and local debt, accompanied by large fiscal deficits, the government sought International Monetary Fund IMF financing from the United States and others. Independence Prince Charles and the Duchess of Cornwall during a visit to Jamaica in Jamaica slowly gained increasing independence from the United Kingdom. The British leaders agreed with the viability of this strategy to forestall outside aggression. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated, especially around the area now known as Old Harbour. Independence, however widely celebrated in Jamaica, has been questioned in the early 21st century.
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