More than a century later, a prince of Macedon which itself was a subject to Persia from the late 6th century BC up to the First Persian invasion of Greece later known by the name of Alexander the Great , overthrew the incumbent Persian king, by which the Achaemenid Empire was ended. From there, some Iranians migrated to the south and west, the Indo-Aryans to the south and east. Some borrowed words and proper names appearing in these Hittite - Hurrian documents have been interpreted variously as belonging to Indo-Iranian, to an Indic subgroup of Indo-Iranian that had not yet fully split, or to Indo-Aryan proper. The date of entry of the Indo-Aryans into the Indian subcontinent cannot be determined precisely, though the beginning of the 2nd millennium bce is plausible and generally accepted. Further, Iranian changed stops such as p before certain consonants to spirants such as f:
This claim is still being debated. Quite recently, evidence was made available suggesting that Bangani, spoken in the area of Bangan—in westernmost Garwhal, Uttarakhand—is a centum language within the Indo-Aryan area. The earlier diphthongs are nevertheless reflected by certain Indo-Aryan alternations. At its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire would encompass swaths of territory across three continents, namely Europe, Africa and Asia, stretching from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east. It is now generally accepted that there were doubtless a series of migrations, although the now-discredited view that an Indo-Aryan invasion took place was once seriously entertained. The Greek chronicler, Herodotus. Thus, prevocalic -ay- and -au- alternate with preconsonantal e and o; e. The oldest Zoroastrian texts are in dialects included under the name Avestan. Speakers of modern Indo-Aryan languages number more than million persons; Hindi , Bengali , Marathi , and Urdu are the most widely spoken of these languages. Indeed, it has been argued that the earliest Indo-Aryan as represented in Vedic texts is tantamount to Proto-Indo-European. Whatever may be the answers to the questions concerning the Middle Eastern texts and the Harappan peoples, the reasons for the split of the Indo-Aryans and Iranians are not known. However, as yet there is no scholarly consensus on this issue. The linguistic evidence, on the other hand, is best reconciled with the thesis that the Indo-Aryans did indeed go to the subcontinent from an external homeland and that the early Vedic system is not equivalent to that of Proto-Indo-European. Some borrowed words and proper names appearing in these Hittite - Hurrian documents have been interpreted variously as belonging to Indo-Iranian, to an Indic subgroup of Indo-Iranian that had not yet fully split, or to Indo-Aryan proper. At first, the Western Iranian peoples in the Near East were dominated by the various Assyrian empires. The administrative languages were Elamite in the early period, and later Imperial Aramaic ,  as well as Greek , making it a widely used bureaucratic language. The Greco-Persian Wars resulted in the Persians being forced to withdraw from their European territories, setting the direct further course of history of Greece and the rest of Europe. Iranian was also relatively conservative in retaining at an early period the diphthongs ai and au, which were changed to simple vowels e and o in Indo-Aryan, and long diphthongs that were shortened to ai and au in Indo-Aryan. The above scenario assumes that the Indo-Aryans migrated into the Indian subcontinent. Indo-Aryan languages, for example, penetrated deep into Southeast Asia ; lexical borrowings in Indonesia, Thailand , and other areas and Sanskrit texts in Cambodia reflect this influence. More than a century later, a prince of Macedon which itself was a subject to Persia from the late 6th century BC up to the First Persian invasion of Greece later known by the name of Alexander the Great , overthrew the incumbent Persian king, by which the Achaemenid Empire was ended. In addition to several other similarities in their grammatical systems, Indo-Aryan and Iranian have significant vocabulary items in common—e. Moreover, the textual evidence from Sanskrit sources that some have claimed demonstrates that Indo-Aryans retained memories of an earlier homeland from which they migrated into the Indian subcontinent is small and subject to serious doubt, as it serves to support this thesis only with considerable interpretational effort. This is not, however, universally accepted. Aside from a very poorly known dialect spoken in or near northern Distribution In the early 21st century, Indo-Iranian languages were spoken by nearly one billion individuals, most of whom resided in a broad region of southwestern and southern Asia. This First Persian Empire was equally notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration through satraps under a king and a government working to the profit of its subjects, for building infrastructure such as a postal system and road systems and the use of an official language across its territories and a large professional army and civil services inspiring similar systems in later empires ,  and for emancipation of slaves including the Jewish exiles in Babylon , and is noted in Western history as the antagonist of the Greek city states during the Greco-Persian Wars. There are scholars, both Indian and non-Indian, who maintain that the Indo-Aryans originated in the subcontinent, whence they emigrated.
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